By Eric H. Cline
In 1177 B.C., marauding teams recognized in simple terms because the “Sea Peoples” invaded Egypt. The pharaoh’s military and military controlled to defeat them, however the victory so weakened Egypt that it quickly slid into decline, as did many of the surrounding civilizations. After centuries of brilliance, the civilized international of the Bronze Age got here to an abrupt and cataclysmic finish. Kingdoms fell like dominoes over the process quite a few many years. not more Minoans or Mycenaeans. not more Trojans, Hittites, or Babylonians. The thriving economic system and cultures of the past due moment millennium B.C., which had stretched from Greece to Egypt and Mesopotamia, unexpectedly ceased to exist, besides writing structures, expertise, and huge structure. however the Sea Peoples by myself couldn't have prompted such common breakdown. How did it happen?
In this significant new account of the factors of this “First darkish Ages,” Eric Cline tells the gripping tale of ways the top used to be caused by way of a number of interconnected disasters, starting from invasion and rebel to earthquakes, drought, and the slicing of foreign alternate routes. Bringing to existence the colourful multicultural global of those nice civilizations, he attracts a sweeping landscape of the empires and globalized peoples of the overdue Bronze Age and exhibits that it used to be their very interdependence that hastened their dramatic cave in and ushered in a depressing age that lasted centuries.
A compelling mix of narrative and the newest scholarship, 1177 B.C. sheds new gentle at the advanced ties that gave upward thrust to, and eventually destroyed, the flourishing civilizations of the overdue Bronze Age—and that set the level for the emergence of classical Greece.
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Extra info for 1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed
By the time of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III some sixty years later, ca. 1500 BC, it was once again a flourishing city, this time known as Peru-nefer, with palaces decorated with Minoan- style frescoes depicting bull-leaping and other scenes more clearly at home on Crete in the Aegean than in Egypt proper. 7 There are certainly a number of later Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasty Egyptian pharaohs who married foreign princesses, primarily to cement diplomatic bonds or a treaty with a foreign power, as we shall see below, but it is not necessary to invoke politically instigated marriages to explain the occurrence of 18 • • • Chapter One Minoan wall paintings in Egypt, since there is other independent evidence for contacts between the Eastern Mediterranean, Egypt, and, in this case, the Aegean.
1200 BC. Sir Arthur Evans began excavating on Crete after tracking down the source of so-called milk stones that he found for sale in the marketplace of Athens. ” The stones had symbols engraved upon them that Evans had never seen before, but which he recognized as writing. He traced them back to a buried site at Knossos (Kephala Hill) Of Arms and the Man • • • 21 near the major modern city of Heraklion on Crete—a site that Heinrich Schliemann, the excavator of Troy, had tried to purchase and excavate, but to no avail.
Mitanni, Assyria, Egyptians. The world was already growing more interconnected, even if sometimes only in war. The Assuwa Rebellion in Anatolia It is intriguing that Thutmose III was in contact, and perhaps involved in active commercial exchange, with distant areas, including areas located to the north and west of Egypt. It is possible that contact with Assuwa (assuming that is the proper identification for Isy) was initiated by Assuwa rather than by Egypt. 49 The Assuwa Rebellion, which had previously been of interest to only a few scholars, came to the forefront in 1991, when a bulldozer operator was digging the blade of his machine into the shoulder of a road by the ancient site of Hattusa, capital city of the Hittites—now a two-hour car ride (208 kilometers) east of modern Ankara.