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17). 20). 3. 1: The 5 GHz interferometer at Jodrell Bank. 3) where ∆T (αi , δi ) is the fluctuation in temperature at point (αi , δi ) after convolution with the Gaussian beam pattern for a single antenna and β is the switching angle. 4) where the noise term is non–zero only when i = j if it is uncorrelated from point to point. 5) where pi are the parameters to be fitted in the covariance matrix and ∆T are the data. The maximum value of this function corresponds to the most probable values of the parameters pi if we interpret the likelihood curves in a Bayesian sense with a uniform a priori probability distribution.

1 today, then at the very early stages of the Universe it had to be 1 − 10−60 . This constitutes the most accurately determined number in physics and hence causes a problem of why Ω was, originally, so close to unity. Inflation gives us a solution to this problem as it naturally predicts that Ω = 1 (if the cosmological constant is zero). Chapter 3 Microwave Background experiments In this chapter I describe the various considerations that go into designing a Microwave Background experiment. The experiments used to produce the data discussed in this thesis will also be summarised.

This minimises both the Galactic foregrounds (free-free and synchrotron are dominant for frequencies less than 10 GHz) and the atmosphere (which becomes increasingly significant with higher frequency). The main data used in this thesis to put constraints on CMB emission are from the Tenerife experiments which operate in this window. The Tenerife instruments consist of three radiometers, each with two independent channels, operating at frequencies of 10, 15 and 33 GHz. They are located at 2400 m altitude at the Teide Observatory in Tenerife.

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