By Karen S. Gibb, John W. Randles (auth.), Kerry F. Harris (eds.)
This sequence explores how vectors (carriers of ailment brokers, akin to bugs) gather, hold and therefore transmit pathogens to hosts. It covers the spectrum of vectors, together with vendors of plant pathogens in addition to medically comparable pathogens. The Chapters in quantity 7 contain: 1. K. Gibb, J.W. Randles: Transmission of velvet tobacco mottle virus and similar viruses through the mirid Cyrto- peltis nicotianae. 2. N. Carter, R. Harrington: elements influencing aphid inhabitants dynamics and behaviour and the implications for virus unfold. three. R.H. Bagnall: Cyclic epidemics of aphid-borne potato viruses in Northern seed-potato-growing components. four. C.J. Andrews, R.C. Sinha: Interactions among barley yellow dwarf virus an infection and winter-stress tolerance in cereals. five. J.R. DeLoach, G. Spates: synthetic diets for blood feeding bugs: a assessment. 6. I. Maudlin: Transmission of African trypanosomiasis: interactions between Tsetse immune method, symbionts, and parasites. 7. C. Chastel, I. Humphery-Smith: Mosquito spiroplasmas. the 1st 4 chapters disguise themes in plant virus transmission via bugs. the ultimate 3 chapters specialise in human and animal illness institutions with bollid-feeding flies.
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As R. padi is less cold-hardy than is S. avenae (49) the latter species is usually more numerous in the following spring (25). The proportion of alate aphids carrying BYDV, as measured in host-plant infectivity trials, is very variable. At two sites over 2 years in Victoria, Australia, the proportion of infected R. padi ranged from 23 to 61 % (100). 5% estimated from alatae collected in the field (47). It is not clear whether this is a result of 36 N. Carter and R. Harrington differences in the incidences of BYDV in alternative host plants or because all clones in Australia are likely to be anholocyclic and thus there is no egg stage in which the virus is lost.
The rate of decrease and its response to temperature are similar for flying or starved alatae and for starved apterae. The loss of infectivity of CMV by M. persicae is more rapid at 30°C than at either 20 or 10°C, but similar at the two lower temperatures (106). Papaya mosaic virus (PaM V) is retained by Aphis gossypii for much longer at 4°C than at 20°C and for longer at 20°C than at 25 to 31°C (98). Biotic Factors Intrinsic Aphid Effects Variation exists within aphid species in the responses to different factors.
From Ref. ) 2. Factors Influencing Aphid Virus Vectors 31 does not overwinter anholocyclically in Sweden and southerly winds were thought to bring viruliferous alatae from the European continent. Secondary Spread Most of the studies on the effects of weather on aphid population development on summer hosts have not considered virus spread. Aphid build-up is only important to virus spread if it results in the movement of aphids within the crop. Aphid species that form large, dense colonies of apterae are less important as virus vectors in comparison with those that produce equivalent numbers that disperse.