By Y. Kazuki, T. C. Schulz, T. Shinohara, M. Kadota (auth.), Prof. Dr. G. Lubec (eds.)
"Advances in Down Syndrome examine” represents up-to-date examine in different parts of Down Syndrome (DS). a brand new promising animal version of DS is suggested and this opens new possibilities to review pathomechanisms and pharmacological methods because it is greater than tricky to hold out experiences in people and the scientific good points are hugely variable. by way of biology, phone cycle and stem mobilephone stories and by way of biochemistry, relevance of reports on a particular protein kinase, channels, transporters, superoxide dismutase, antioxidant approach, chromosome meeting issue and different vital organic constructions are supplied. And back, the gene dosage speculation is addressed and even though the majority of chromosome 21 gene items is unchanged in fetal DS mind, a couple of particular chromosome 21 encoded buildings together with transcription elements are certainly overexpressed even if findings in fetal DS are diverse from these in grownup DS mind while Alzheimer-like neuropathology supervenes.
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Extra info for Advances in Down Syndrome Research
BHLH transcription factors appear to play important roles in directing cell fate and controlling cell proliferation and differentiation during embryonic development. , 1996). SIMi has been shown to be essential in hypothalmic development by targeted gene inactivation in the mouse. , 1996). , 2000). , 1999). , 2003). Herein, however, SIM2 levels were statistically comparable between DS, AD and controls although SIM2 levels were increased. Re-analysis with a higher number of brain samples may reveal a statistically proven increase, in this study we focused on a small but homogeneous cohort and the male sex exclusively.
Nat Neurosci 4: 981-988 Windahl SH, Treuter E, Ford J, Zilliacus J, Gustafsson J-A, McEwan IJ (1999) The nuclear-receptor interacting protein (RIP) 140 binds to the human glucocorticoid receptor and modulates hormone-dependent transactivation. J Steroid Biochem Mol BioI 71: 93-102 Woods YL, Cohen P, Becker W, Jakes R, Goedert M, Wang X, Proud CG (2001) The kinase DYRK phosphorylates protein-synthesis initiation factor eIF2BE at Ser539 and the microtubule-associated protein tau at Thrz1z : potential role for DYRK as a glycogen synthase kinase 3-priming kinase.
We also used NSE levels in order to normalise TF levels by neuronal density. The significant reduction of BACHI was even more pronounced when related to NSE. NSE - normalised ERG levels still showed increased expression in DS and AD although not reaching statistical significance (Table 2). There was no statistically significant correlation between protein expression of BACHI and ERG and either age or post-mortem interval of brain samples (data not shown). Discussion The major findings of the study are decreased expression of BACHI protein in DS and increased expression of ERG protein in DS and AD frontal cortex.