By Armand Mattelart
The ads has replaced out of all acceptance over the last twenty years. The map of world communications has been redrawn by way of a flood of mergers and takeovers, and the media is now ruled via a handful of transnational conglomerates. advertisements businesses have various into tv construction, public family members, media paying for and advertising companies. within the hole created via the trouble in public carrier provision, advertisements has stepped in, forming a community which enervates media, economies, cultures, politics and diplomacy. Armand Mattelart's survey assesses the advance and destiny customers of this "industry of public noise", and assesses the consequences for democracy of the increase and upward push of the communications society. This e-book may be of curiosity to complicated scholars and lecturers of media reports, conversation reports, advertising stories, cultural reports, sociology and administration stories.
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Additional info for Advertising International: The Privatisation of Public Space (Comedia)
Before 1970, there had been only one serious attack on the commission system in the entire history of advertising: in 1929, at the time of the Great Depression, when advertisers reduced their budgets. To avoid any possible misunderstandings, advertisers and agencies jointly turned to a professor at the University of Chicago to write an independent report. His conclusion was that even though in theory it was not ideal, in practice there was no better method of remunerating the work of the agency.
To play the game of competitive prices to the last round. With great risk to the agencies, this first upheaval in century-old habits took place in the late 1970s. No need to guess where: Great Britain. In November 1976 the Office of Fair Trading ruled that the traditional advertising agency commission system was an illegal monopoly under the Restrictive Trade Practices Act of 1976. ) The results were not long in coming: the blossoming of a generation of small agencies which profitably employed the modified tariff system, and the rise of specialist media-buyers through which the newcomers were able to evade the need to provide the media proprietors with financial guarantees (in five years the number of these ‘media independents’ tripled, most of them set up by ex-directors of the media departments of the big agencies).
One should add that in many countries—France, for example—advertising people have never bothered to define the difference between ‘group’ and ‘agency’, nor have they agreed on common and public rules of accounting or systematic auditing of accounts: hence the divergences which occur in different sources. * The terms ‘above the line’ and ‘below the line’ in advertising do not mean the same as in film and television production. ‘Above the line’ originally meant the five media which paid commission to advertising agencies, namely, the press, radio, television, outdoor advertising and cinema.