Economic Conditions

Download An Essay on the Economic Effects of the Reformation by George O'Brien PDF

By George O'Brien

ISBN-10: 0971828628

ISBN-13: 9780971828629

Книга An Essay at the financial results of the Reformation An Essay at the financial results of the ReformationКниги Экономика Автор: George O'Brien Год издания: 2003 Формат: pdf Издат.:Ihs Press Страниц: 176 Размер: 2,9 ISBN: 0971828628 Язык: Английский 34 (голосов: 1) Оценка:This paintings bargains a different standpoint at the upward thrust of capitalism and socialism and the impact of the Reformation. particular subject matters contain effects of trust within the deepest judgment of scriptures; separation of religious and secular lifestyles; distinction among Lutheran and Calvinist teachings on economics; the Calvinist inspiration of vocation; its conception of fabric good fortune as an indication of divine election; its compliment of frugality and disdain for attractiveness. additionally lined is socialism as a response to excesses of capitalism; the way within which Protestantism had bolstered secular authority; diminuation of charity towards the bad following Reformation; materialism underlying socialism abetted via Protestant emphasis on earthly prosperity; egalitarian rules traceable to Protestantism; and the benefit with which socialism mixed into Protestant proposal. this can be a exact paintings of financial philosophy in that it examines the ideological motives of the industrial adjustments of the interval, therefore providing a clean philosophical standpoint instead of in simple terms the mathematical or statistical facets of the query.

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The ecclesiastical courts were important in this connection, but still more important was the power arising from the insistence on auricular confession. The confessor exercised a power over the penitent which was pregnant with the possibility of great benefits, not alone to the latter’s individual behaviour, but also to the general social regulation of the community. The avaricious merchant, the fraudulent dealer, or the oppressor of the poor, might succeed in evading the keenest regulations of the civil power, but, sooner or later, he was driven to disclose his wrong-doing to a tribunal which had the power to order restitution under pressure of the most terrible sanctions.

89 The second species of good works, the abolition of which by the reformers had important economic consequences, were the great charitable activities of the Catholic Church. Throughout the Middle Ages, poverty, far from being regarded as a disgrace, was regarded as a badge of holiness; and even begging was dignified by the example of the mendicant friars. Europe was thickly covered with institutions for the relief of every variety of poverty and suffering, and the resources of the monastic establishments were supplemented by private alms, the giving of which was imposed as a strict duty on owners of property.

The German and Swiss reformers” according to Wiskemann, “are united in their war against Rome and all the spiritual and temporal evils which the people suffered from the rule of the hierarchy, but the Swiss reformers – at least, Calvin – display a greater insight into economic processes. ”18 We may leave aside for the moment any consideration of the other matters referred to in this extract, in order to say a word about the most important matter to which it refers – namely, Calvin’s justification of usury.

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