By Norman J. G. Pounds
The critical topic of this publication is the altering spatial development of human actions over the past 2,500 years of Europe's background. Professor kilos argues that 3 components have decided the destinations of human actions: the surroundings, the attitudes and different types of social association of the numerous diversified peoples of Europe and finally, the degrees of know-how. in the wide framework of the interrelationships of surroundings, society and expertise, a number of very important issues pursued from the 5th century BC to the early 20th century: payment and agriculture, the expansion of towns, the improvement of producing and the function of exchange. Underlying each one of those subject matters are the discussions of political association and inhabitants. even though the booklet relies partly of Professor Pound's magisterial 3 volumes An old Geography of Europe (1977, 1980, 1985), it used to be written particularly for college students and readers attracted to a normal survey of the topic.
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Extra info for An Historical Geography of Europe (Soviet and East European Studies, 79)
The sea was almost tideless, and its storms never had the violence of those experienced in the Atlantic Ocean. It was a nursery of seamanship, and from the earliest times the cultures of the Middle East and of Greece had been carried westward by ship to Italy, the Spanish peninsula, and the shores of the more tempestuous Atlantic. VEGETATION OF EUROPE As the climate grew warmer and the ice sheets melted away, coniferous forest invaded the subarctic waste which covered much of Europe, and was followed as it spread northward by broad-leaved trees.
A rising water level forced its abandonment, and it was buried beneath peat and lake deposits. When excavated it proved to be oval in plan, covering almost five acres and protected by, in addition to the water of the lake, a stout palisade. Within were thirteen rows of wooden houses, straight and parallel to one another; in all, more than a hundred houses and a population of more than five hundred. The settlement was primarily agricultural; it had no pretentious buildings, nothing, in fact, to distinguish it from several other such settlements in the northern plain.
During the Middle Ages and early modern times long-distance transportation would have been inconceivable without rivers. Rivers radiated from the hills and mountains of central Europe. Those of the northern plain had been profoundly influenced by the glaciation of northern Europe. Their courses had been diverted toward the northwest, so that parts of eastern Europe were put into direct contact with the ports of the North Sea. No insuperable barriers separated the basins of these northern rivers, and in modern times it proved possible to link them to one another by canals (see Chap.