By Andrew Liddle

ISBN-10: 0470848340

ISBN-13: 9780470848340

A concise, available creation to this intriguing and dynamic subject.* Adopts an procedure grounded in physics instead of mathematics.* contains labored examples and pupil difficulties, in addition to tricks for fixing them and the numerical answers.* Many reviewers have commented that this can be the best 'introductory undergraduate point' texts at the topic and they might all welcome a moment version.

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**Additional resources for An Introduction to Modern Cosmology**

**Example text**

Supposing that a typical (eg root mean square) galaxy peculiar velocity is 600 kms – 1 , how far away would a galaxy have to be before it could be used to determine the Hubble constant to ten per cent accuracy, supposing (a) The true value of the Hubble constant is 100 km s–1 Mpc –1 ? (b) The true value of the Hubble constant is 50 km s–1 Mpc–1 ? Assume in your calculation that the galaxy distance and redshift could be measured exactly. Unfortunately, that is not true of real observations. 3. What evidence can you think of to support the assertion that the Universe is charge neutral, and hence contains an equal number of protons and electrons?

Sketch a and t as functions of 9. Describe qualitatively the behaviour of the Universe. Attempt to sketch a as a function of t. 6. Now consider the case k < 0, with a Universe containing only matter (p = 0) so that p = p 0 /a 3 . What is the solution a(t) in a situation where the final term of the Friedmann equation dominates over the density term? How does the density of matter vary with time? Is domination by the curvature term a stable situation that will continue forever? This page intentionally left blank Chapter 6 Observational Parameters The Big Bang model does not give a unique description of our present Universe, but rather leaves quantities such as the present expansion rate, or the present composition of the Universe, to be fixed by observation.

The number of particles of a given energy then depends only on the temperature. The precise distribution depends on whether the particles considered are fermions, which obey the Pauli exclusion principle, or bosons, which do not. In this book the most interesting case is that of photons, which are bosons, and their characteristic distribution at temperature T is the Planck or black-body spectrum. 7). There are far more photons with very low energy than very high energy. 619 x 10–5 eV K – 1 . To interpret this equation, remember that hf is the photon energy.