By V. Petrini, M. Save
How to raised security of our architectural historical past within the occasion of earthquakes? The vulnerability of cultural artifacts necessitates the understanding of a procedure which takes into consideration the issues of structure, engineering and seismology between others. Written via architects and engineers, this ebook makes an attempt to provide solutions and provides directions for either architects and engineers operating during this field.
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Extra resources for Protection of the Architectural Heritage Against Earthquakes
0 : This equation leads to the computation of natural frequencies and modes of vibration of the system. 3 Computation of natural frequencies and modes of vibration Computation of these quantities requires solution of the matrix equation: As the elements of [P] cannot be simultaneously all zero, a nontrivial solution is obtained from the frequency equation of the system: The n roots of this equation (ro~,ro~, .. ro~) represent the squeares of the natural frequencies of the n modes of vibration of the system.
4 Physical interpretation Modification of initial mass m0 and stiffitess k0 affect directly the initial natural period To: Examples: 1 2 3. 00 J. OD D. A. ,' . / . 50 -o~ ! I '\ .. l 0 Idealized single degree of freedom system: basic configuration Assumption: The moving body (fig. I 0) is considered as a mass particle. A. 3 Solution ofthe equation or: Phase angle: a= tan . 2;4 Experimental Determination of Damping Ratio In order to determine the damping ratio~ the following steps are applied: I) Displacement U0 of the mass from its equilibrium position.
After that the damping coefficients are defined from the equation (1). A. Syrmakezis The modal damping ratios experimental determination). ~; can be estimated on the basis of existing experience ( 6. The dynamic loading vary with time (earthquake, blast, etc). The inertial loading due to an earthquake is one, type of dynamic loading. 1 Static versus Dynamic actions The term 'tlynamic" generally means 'time-varying". Oppositely to a static action, dynamic action is a loading whose magnitude, direction and point of application vary with time.